Causes of Diabetes
Type I - insulin-dependent diabetes melitus
Symptoms of diabetes
Symptoms of Diabetes
- Excessive Thirst
- Frequent urination
- General body weakness
- Blurred vision
- Sudden and rapid Weight loss (suggests Type 1 Diabetes)
- Sores that do not heal
Prevention, control and treatment
- Insulin injections
- Eating the right foods
- Exercising regularly
How to treat type II diabetes?
- Increase your physical activity,
- Lose excess weight
- Limit your salt intake
- Control homocysteine levels
Blood glucose monitoring
|Hours after meal||Glucose|
|Fasting||3.5 - 5 mol/l|
|1 hour after meals||6 - 9 mol/l|
|2 hours after meals||7 - 10 mol/l|
|3 hours after meals||6 - 9 mol/l|
|4 hours after meals||4.5 - 8 mol/l|
|5 hours after meals||3.5 - 5 mol/l|
Are your blood glucose levels are high?
If more by 2 units - High
If more by 4 units - Very high
If more by 6 units - Extremely High
If more than 8 units - Dangerous. You have a problem and should consult your Doctor
Blood Glucose Monitoring Sheet
|Blood glucose monitoring sheet|
6 steps to effectively control blood sugar
Exercising for diabetics
Regular blood glucose monitoring should be part of your daily exercise routine in order to help you deal effectively with hypo's (low levels) and hyper's (high levels).
Before exercise, a snack should be taken in order to prevent a hypo during the session. If the duration of the exercise is is longer than one hour, take a carbohydrate "drink" half way into the session. If you do not have a snack available, a packet (15-25 gm) of lightly salted crisps will suffice.
If pre-exercise blood glucose level is between 5.5 mol/l and 14 mol/l
You will not necessarily need a pre-exercise snack, but you must have a drink in order to maintain good hydration during and after the exercise session.
Check for ketones in your urine. If positive, do not exercise for at least two hours, and then recheck. If still positive, do not exercise. If you are insulin deficient and you exercise, you will exacerbate the problem and end up with even higher blood glucose level which subsequently makes the ketonic problem worse and could be potentially dangerous.
If urine is ketone-free, begin with light exercises and drink only water during and after exercise.
Insulin Receptor Sensitivity
The Homocysteine Factor
- Family history of heart disease, strokes, cancer, Alzheimers disease, schizophrenia or diabetes
- Increasing age
- Male sex
- Oestrogen deficiency
- Excessive alcohol, coffee or tea intake
- Lack of exercise
- Hostility and repressed anger
- Inflammatory bowel diseases
- Ulcers (H. pylori induced)
- Being a strict vegetarian or vegan
- High fat diet with too much red meat, and high dairy intake
- High salt intake
- below 6 - no risk
- 6-9 -low risk
- 9-15 -high risk
- Above 15 - very high risk
- Eat less fatty meat, more fish and vegetables
- Eat your greens
- Have a clove of garlic a day
- Don't add salt to your food
- Cut back on tea and coffee
- Limit your alcohol
- Reduce your stress
- Stop smoking
- Supplement a high strength multivitamin every day
- Take homocysteine lowering supplements. These include Vitamins B2, B6, B12, Folic acid, TMG and zinc
1. Draft by Infonet March 2011.
2. Review by Dr Alice Ojwang-Ndong January 2012
Information Source Links
- Holford, Patrich 2007: New Optimum Nutrition Bible. Piatkus books. An imprint of Little, Brown book group, 100 Victoria Embankment, London EC4Y ODY. ISBN No: 978-0-7499-2552-9 Sometimes available in Kenya through Health food shops.
- Nelms M., Sucher K., Long S.; Nutrition Therapy and Pathophysiology; International Student Edition.
- Kenya Diabetes Study Group; The National diabetes Guideline; 2nd Edition, Nairobi Kenya.