Bean Leaves (New)

Scientific Name
Phaseolus vulgaris Syn; Phaseolus esculenta (CABI., 2021)
Order / Family
Fabales, Fabaceae
Local Names
Common beans, Bush beans, Dwarf beans, Dry beans, French beans (also known as green beans or snap beans), Field Beans, Garden Beans, Haricot Beans, Kidney Beans, Pole Beans, Or String Beans.
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Geographical Distribution in Africa

Geographical distribution in Africa
Common bean - Phaseolus vulgaris was domesticated in Central and South America more than 6000 years ago.
It originated in the Americas and was domesticated in Mexico, Peru and Colombia 8000 years ago. Prior to Columbus it was unknown in the Old World, but later it has become an important crop in Europe and Africa. It is widely cultivated in many parts of the tropics and subtropics and throughout the temperate regions. Common bean is the most important pulse crop throughout tropical America and many parts of tropical Africa. It is of little importance in India and most of tropical Asia, where indigenous pulses are preferred.
Native to:
Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Panamá
Introduced into:
Africa; Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burundi, Cabo Verde, Chad, Cote de Ivore, Democratic republic of Congo, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Lesotho, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Republic of South Africa, Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, S. Sudan, Senegal, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, Zimbabwe,Guinea, West Siberia
(Phaseolus Vulgaris L. | Plants of the World Online | Kew Science, n.d.)

Other Local names
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North Africa: Oubya (Morocco) (Chaachouay, N. et al., 2019)

Southern Africa: (Otchi) Poke (Umubumbu, Angola), Feijoeiro Ordinario (Portuguese, Angola), Makasikila (Kikongo, Angola) (Lautenschläger, T et al., 2018); E mbotyi (Isi Xhosa, S. Africa) (Maroyi, A., 2017).

Western Africa: Nii "Tèengu Soo" (Bandiagara, Mali) (Inngjerdingen, K.T et al., 2004); Sona (Tem, Togo) (Karou, S.D et al., 2011);

Eastern Africa: Majani ya Maharagwe (Swahili, Kenya), Nyeni cia maboco (Kikuyu, Kenya), Mboso (Kamba, Kenya); Zarikô (Antakarana, Madagascar), Tsaramaso (Malgache, Madagascar), Haricot (Fançais, Madagascar) (Nicolas, J. P., 2012); Khwanya (Bean leaves) (Yao, Malawi), Mbwanda (Yao, Malawi), Nyemba (Chiwewa, Malawi) (Maundu., 2006).; Chimpapila (Bean leaves) (Bemba, Zambia), Umukarankuba (Kinyarwanda, Rwanda) (Lestrade, A., 1955)

Central Africa: Haricot rouge (local French, Cameroon) (Mpondo, E. M et al., 2015); Cishimbo (shi, DRC) (Defour, G., 1994); Madeso manene (Kongo, DRC), Haricot vert (French, DRC Congo); Ariko (Mpongwè, Galoa, Nkomi, Orungu), Mariku (Eshira, Bavarama, Bavungu, Bapunu, Gabon), Butsangi (Baduma, Gabon), Usangé (Béséki, Gabon), Uhangé (Benga, Gabon), Bésangé (Bakélé, Gabon) (Raponda-Walker, A., & Sillans, R., 1961)

 

 

Introduction

The common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, is a herbaceous annual plant in the family Fabaceae which is grown as a pulse and green vegetable. Beans are cultivated widely worldwide, forming one of the most significant food sources in Africa and Latin america. Beans were introduced to Africa from Latin America several centuries ago. To date beans are a vital staple in Africa, providing the main source of protein. Beans are consumed in many forms; the young leaves, green pods, and fresh bean grains are used as vegetables. Consumption of bean leaves is reported from the tropics from southern and eastern Africa: South Africa, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Malawi, Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda.

Pulse crop ; In tropical Africa common bean is primarily produced and consumed as a pulse. The mature dry seeds of common bean are eaten worldwide as a pulse and the immature pods and seeds as a vegetable. In tropical Africa the bean is most typically consumed boiled, often with seasoning and some oil added. It may also be mashed or made into soup. In many parts of the world the dry seeds of common bean are canned, either alone or in tomato sauce.

Leafy vegetable; Common bean leaves are eaten as a vegetable, e.g. during the hunger months of the year when not much food is available. Consumption of the bean leaves is more prevalent in the cooler highlands of east and southern Africa.

In South Africa, the leaves are commonly eaten as a cooked green called moroqo or m'fino. In the inland highveld, the bean leaves is dried in the sun to store for the dry season. Dried morogo is frequently available year-round, in urban as well as rural markets.

The Shona, Kaianga and Zezuru people of Zimbabwe eat Bean leaves as cooked greens regularly, with a peanut paste or stew when available. In Zambia, fresh bean leaves are cut up and boiled with salt or trona (crude sodium carbonate) and eaten immediately, or dried in the sun for two or three days. In Malawi bean leaves are harvested during the pod filling stage. The fresh leaves are sundried on mats and stored in sacks. Although young leaves are preferred, older leaves are also eaten, usually cooked with sodium carbonate, trona or potash to soften them. The Chewa and other peoples eat bean leaves with peanut paste or stew

In Uganda, bean leaves are commonly eaten fresh-cooked and are dried for dry season consumption.They are used to supplement the staple food dish as a sauce, a relish added to meat and fish, and mixed with the bean seed itself. In Kenya, bean leaves are important in the higher rainfall areas where most beans are grown. Intercropping is the standard practice, usually in rows between other crops, but sometimes in small patches. The leaves are steamed, boiled or fried alone or in combination with other vegetables, depending on use and availability.

Various local spices and trona may be used to alter the leaves' consistency. Most are eaten as an accompaniment to a high-carbohydrate food stuff such as maize, sorghum, cassava, banana, etc. However in Kenya, bean leaves are not an important market commodity, even at the local level, although some will be sold, particularly in drier areas or in periods of famine or shortage.(The Beannicowpea collaborative research support program (CRSP), n.d.)

Livestock fodder; Crop residues are often used as fodder.

 

 

General Information

The common bean is typically a climbing, trailing or erect and bushy annual herb,depending on the variety being grown. The leaves grow alternately on the stems, are green or purple in color and are divided into 3 oval leaflets with smooth edges. The leaves can grow 6–15 cm long and 3–11 cm wide. The common bean produces white, pink, lilac or purple flowers which are approximately 1 cm in diameter, and bean pods 8–20 cm long and 1–1.5 cm wide which can range in color from green to yellow or black to purple. Each pod contains 4-6 smooth, kidney-shaped beans. Common bean plants are annual plants and last only one growing season and range greatly in size from the bushy varieties 20–60 cm in height; to vines or runner beans which can reach 200 –300 cm in length. (Wortmann, C.S., 2006)

Phaseolus vulgaris plant with leaves
Phaseolus vulgaris plant with leaves Ⓒ P Maundu 2014

Common beans does well in regions with temperatures between 15 and 27°C. The crop can tolerate the maximum temperatures of about 29. 5°C. Temperatures close to or above 35°C, and stress due to moisture during the flowering stage and pod formation may cause abortion effects to several blossoms and under development of new pods. The sufficient conditions necessary for beans growing are; rainfall range between 350 and 500 mm and relatively low humidity. Low humidity and enough rainfall are significant in controlling the risks associated with bacterial and fungal diseases.

Common bean (dry bean) varieties in Kenya 

 

Variety

Optimal production altitude (m)

Maturity period (months)

Grain yield (t/ha)

Remarks

"Canadian Wonder (GLP 24)" 

1200-1800 

3.0 

1.3-1.8 

Seeds are shiny dark reddish purple, recommended for medium rainfall areas, resistant to angular leaf spot (ALS) and anthracnose but susceptible to common bean mosaic virus (CBMV) and rust 

"KAT/B-1"

 

Dry beans seed KAT BI 

Ⓒ A.A. Seif, icipe

1000-1800 

2.5

1.4-1.9 

Seeds creamish-green, tolerant to ALS, common bacterial blight (CBB) and CBMV, tolerant to drought and heat and grows well under tree/banana shades

"KAT/B-9" 

900-1600

2.5-3.0 

1.0-1.8

Seeds brilliant red, more drought tolerant than KAT/B-1, tolerant to CBMV and rust 

"KAT X16"

900-1600

2-3

1.5-1.8

 

"KAT X56" 

900-1800 

2.5-3.0

1.5-1.8

Seeds brilliant red, tolerant to CBMV, charcoal rot and rust

"KAT X69" 

1200-1800 

2-3

1.5-1.8 

Seeds red with cream flecks, resistant to CBMV and rust, tolerant to ALS and charcoal rot, susceptible to lodging 

"Kenya Wonder"

1000-2000

3.0-3.5 

1.1-2.1 

Moderately resistant to ALS, CBB, CBMV and halo blight (HB)

"Kenya Red Kidney" 

 

Dry beans seed Kenya Red Kidney

Ⓒ A.A. Seif, icipe

1000-2100 

2.5-3.0 

1.1-2.8 

Moderately resistant to ALS, CBB, CBMV and HB

"KK 8"

1500-1800 

2.5-3.0

1.8-2.0 

Tolerant to root rot

"KK 15"

1500-1800

2.5-3.0

1.8-2.0

Tolerant to root rot 

"KK 22"

1500-1800 

2.5-3.0 

1.8-2.0

Tolerant to root rot

"Miezi Mbili" 

1000-2000 

2.5-3.0 

1.2-2.3 

Moderately resistant to ALS, anthracnose, CBB, CBMV and HB 

"Mwezi Moja (GLP 1004)"

Figure 2; Bean. Mwezi Moja (GLP 1004). Machakos.P Maundu

1200-1600 

2-3

1.2-1.5

Well suited for the drier semi-arid low rainfall areas and also performs well in medium rainfall areas during short rains, seeds are large beige or light brown speckled purple, tolerant to drought and bean fly but susceptible to HB 

"Mwitemania (GLP X92)" 

900-1600 

2-3 

1.2-1.5 

Wide adaptability to various agro-ecological zones of low to high rainfall areas, seeds broad with brown flecks on cream, susceptible to CBMV, drought tolerant

"New Mwezi Moja (GLP X1127)" 

1000-1500 

2.5-3.0 

1.0-1.5 

Wide adaptability, resistant to CBMV, tolerant to rust

"Pinto Bean (GLP 92)" 

100-1500

3.0-3.5 

1.2-1.7 

Wide adaptability, resistant to HB

"Red Haricot (GLP 585)" 

1500-2000 

2.5-3.0

1.0-1.5 

Suitable for high rainfall areas, resistant to CBMV 

"Rose Coco (GLP 2)"

Figure; Beans-rose coco (GLP 2) (Green

P Maundu) 

1500-2000

3.0

1.8-2.0

Wide adaptability, recommended for medium and high rainfall areas, seeds red with cream flecks, resistant to anthracnose and CBMV but susceptible to ALS and rust

"Wairimu Dwarf"