Cotton leafhoppers or jassids
They are small insects (1-3 mm long), green in colour with slender tapered bodies. Leafhoppers are very mobile. The adults hop away when disturbed. Nymphs resemble adults, but have no wings, and run sideways when disturbed. The eggs are inserted in the leaf tissue on the underside of leaflets. They feed mainly on the underside of eggplant leaves, causing small yellow patches on leaves. Infested leaves curl upwards along the margin. Under heavy attack, leaves turn yellow and then brown and dry, giving a burned appearance. Fruit setting may be very low. Leafhoppers multiply rapidly during dry spells and can cause extensive damage.
- Spray neem products. Commercial and simple (home-made) neem products give control of leafhoppers on eggplants. Thus, an aqueous neem seed extract (10g/l) sprayed at 10 days interval showed repellent effects against leafhoppers (Empoasca) in India. Weekly applications of aqueous neem kernel extracts (6 to 50g/l) and of neem oil (5 to 10 l/ha) controlled the leafhopper, Jacobiasca facialis, in Togo (Osterman and Dreyer, 1995). In Sudan, the commercial products (Neem-Azal-T/S and neem oil-Rimulgan), and home-made neem products (50g/l) controlled leafhoppers on potatoes and eggplants.Control was improved when the neem extract was applied with a pre-pressurised knap sack sprayer instead of a palm leaf brush (El Shafie, 2001).