Cashew (Revised)

Scientific Name
Anacardium occidentale L.
Order / Family
Sapindales: Anacardiaceae
Local Names
Mkorosho / mkanju (Swahili), Angola: Cajú, Cajueiro (Portuguese), Nkazuwa (Kikongo) Benin: Kandju (Goum, Yoruba); Cadjou (Fon); Yovotchan (Adja); Kadjou (Yoruba); Ékadjou (Nagot), Akadiya (Yom); Youbourou Somba, Yibo Somba (Bariba);
Pests & Diseases:
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
Other pests: Aphids

Geographical Distribution in Africa

Geographical Distribution of Cashew in Africa. Updated on 8 July 2019. Source FAOSTAT
© OpenStreetMap contributors, © OpenMapTiles, GBIF.

Native to Tropical South America, but introduced into most tropical countries of the world.

Other Local names

Burkina Faso: Fisan (Sanan)
Cameroon: Pomme cajou (French)
Comoros; Mani Ya Mbibo (Great Comoros, Anjouan Island); Mbotza (Mohéli Island); Pomme Cajou (French)
DRC: Pomme cajou (French); Kazuwa (Kikongo); Mbum aya liboto (Lingala); Nkasu, anacardier (Kikongo and Kiyombe)
Ghana: Ateaa (Twi dialect); Antírìnyà (Dagomba)
Guinea Bissau: Katchá (Balanta); Buadjú (Biafada); Cadjú (Guinean Creole); Udaracassá (Jola), Cadjudje (Fula); Lalaguei (Futa-Fula); Cadjuo (Mandinga); Laliké (Nalu); Caju (Portugese); Laliké, Kusso (Sosso) 
Guinea: Yalagué porto. (Poular); Pommier cajou (French)
Kenya: Bibo; Kanju; Mbibo; Mkorosho (Swahili); Ngoloso (Kamba)
Malawi: Mbibu; Msololikoko; Nkoloso
Mali: Jibarani, Darakase (Bambara); Jibarani (Malinke); Komi Gason (Senoufo)
Madagascar: Mabibo, Mahabibo (Antakarana), Mahabily, Voambarika (Malgache)
Mozambique: Mukejhu, Caju (Chindau) 
Nigeria: Kaju (Yoruba); Kadinnia (Hausa); Kanju (Hausa, Kanuri); Cashew (Ibibio); Sashu (Igbo); Ikashu (Igede)
Senegal: Darkasou (Wolof); Daf Duruba (Serere)
Sierra Leone: Kushu (Krio); Kusui (Mende) 
Sudan: Kashu 
Tanzania: Korosho (Swahili) 
Togo: Yovotsan; Atcham (Tem)

General Information and Agronomic Aspects

Introduction
Cashew tree (Anacardium occidentale) is a tropical evergreen tree native to northeastern Brazil. It belongs to the family Anacardiaceae, which is a diverse family of flowering plants comprising approximately 80 genera and over 870 species. The Anacardium genus comprises 20 species, which are extensively found in tropical regions. Anacardium occidentale is the predominant species cultivated and utilized. Additionally, Anacardium microcarpum, also known as Cajui are also widely used for medicinal and nutraceutical purposes
Cashew trees (Anacardium occidentale) have a widespread distribution, primarily in tropical regions. They are found in countries such as Brazil, India, Vietnam, Nigeria, and Tanzania. These trees thrive in well-drained, sandy soils and are often cultivated for their nuts. The tree produces cashew apples, which are pear-shaped fruits with a juicy pulp. The true cashew nut is actually the kidney-shaped seed found at the bottom of the cashew apple. The kernels or nuts have a high nutritional as well as commercial value and are used for human consumption either raw or roasted. The cashew nut apple is rich in Vitamin C (about 5 times higher than the orange) and is used for the production of juice, wines, spirits, jam, pickles and chutneys. In Brazil, Mozambique and Indonesia, the cashew apple is also important; it is eaten fresh or mixed in fruit salads, and a drink is prepared from the juice; sweets and jams can also be prepared from it. Young shoots and leaves are eaten fresh or cooked.

Cashew tree © A. M. Varela, ICIPE
Cashew tree
© A. M. Varela, ICIPE

In addition to their utilization as food, the tree's timber is used for construction and making furniture, while its bark and leaves possess medicinal properties and are used in traditional remedies. Cashew shell oil, extracted from the nut shells, finds applications in industries such as paints, varnishes, and automotive brake fluids. 
The Portuguese introduced cashew to Mozambique in the 16th century where it flourished forming extensive forests; later introduced to the continent’s west coast, where it presently grows from Senegal to Nigeria. Portuguese and Spanish traders also introduced the cashew tree to Southeast Asia. The cashew tree now grows in tropical climates of about thirty countries across the globe (Between 30ºN to 30º S). India is the largest single producer of cashew nuts while West Africa-principally Ivory Coast, Benin, and Guinea-Bissau—is the largest regional producer. Vietnam, Brazil, and East Africa are the other major sources of production. Indonesia has become a major producer and exporter in Southeast Asia. Cashew is cultivated in agricultural areas degraded by extensive cultivation in sub-Sahara Africa. Therefore, cashew trees are not only important in reclaiming farming land but have become one of economically important crops in countries such as Tanzania, Mozambique, Nigeria, Guinea Bissau, Côte d'Ivoire and Benin). In Kenya and Tanzania, Cashew is grown along the coastal plains. 
(Salehi et al., 2019, Orwa et al., 2009, Plantation crops., 2012, Sika et al., 2005, Red river foods., 2011).
The true cashew nut is actually the kidney-shaped seed found at the bottom of the cashew apple. The kernels or nuts have a high nutritional as well as commercial value and are used for human consumption either raw or roasted. The cashew nut apple is rich in Vitamin C (about 5 times higher than the orange) and is used for the production of juice, wines, spirits, jam, pickles and chutneys.

In Brazil, Mozambique and Indonesia, the cashew apple is also important; it is eaten fresh or mixed in fruit salads, and a drink is prepared from the juice; sweets and jams can also be prepared from it. Young shoots and leaves are eaten fresh or cooked.

In addition to their utilization as food, the tree's timber (not of very high quality) is used for construction, making furniture, firewood (better when mixed with other types of wood. It's bark and leaves possess medicinal properties and are used in traditional remedies. Cashew shell oil, extracted from the nut shells, finds applications in industries such as paints, varnishes, and automotive brake fluids. 
The Portuguese introduced cashew to Mozambique in the 16th century where it flourished forming extensive forests; later introduced to the continent’s west coast, where it presently grows from Senegal to Nigeria. Portuguese and Spanish traders also introduced the cashew tree to Southeast Asia. The cashew tree now grows in tropical climates of about thirty countries across the globe (Between 30ºN to 30º S). India is the largest single producer of cashew nuts while West Africa-principally Ivory Coast, Benin, and Guinea-Bissau—is the largest regional producer. Vietnam, Brazil, and East Africa are the other major sources of production. Indonesia has become a major producer and exporter in Southeast Asia. Cashew is cultivated in agricultural areas degraded by extensive cultivation in sub-Sahara Africa. Therefore, cashew trees are not only important in reclaiming farming land but have become one of economically important crops in countries such as Tanzania, Mozambique, Nigeria, Guinea Bissau, Côte d'Ivoire and Benin). In Kenya and Tanzania, Cashew is grown along the coastal plains. 
(Salehi et al., 2019, Orwa et al., 2009, Plantation crops., 2012, Sika et al., 2005, Red river foods., 2011)

 

Species account 

The cashew tree is a medium-sized tropical evergreen tree growing to a height of 6- 14 m with a spreading canopy and a short, often crooked trunk. Bark: grayish-brown with fissures and ridges, and the tree has a shallow root system. Leaves: Spirally arranged, leathery texture, oval to elliptical, and glossy dark green with smooth margins. Flowers: small, unisexual flowers in pale green or yellowish clusters at the branch tips. Fruit (cashew apple): oval or pear-shaped, develops from the pedicel and the receptacle of the cashew flower, ripens to yellow or red. This thin-skinned edible cashew fruit has a light yellow spongy flesh, which is juicy, pleasantly acidic and slightly astringent when eaten raw and highly astringent when green. 
The true fruit of the cashew tree is the kidney-shaped or pear-shaped drupe that grows attached to the bottom of the cashew nut, gray or pale brown and has a hard shell containing a single edible kernel.

(Orwa et al., 2009, GBIF secretariat, 2021, Latham & ku Mbuta,2014).

Cashew apples and nuts
Cashew apples and nuts

© A. M. Varela, icipe

Cashew nut in Kitui, E. Kenya Ⓒ J Kioko, 2022
Cashew nut in Kitui, E. Kenya

Ⓒ J Kioko, 2022

Anacardium occidentale L fruit in Kitui, E. Kenya Ⓒ J Kioko, 2022
Anacardium occidentale L fruit in Kitui, E. Kenya

Ⓒ J Kioko, 2022

Varieties
Cashew nuts display variations in tree size, fruit shape, color, texture, and quality. In nature, two types of cashew trees exist defined by tree size differences: the common or giant type and the dwarf type. The common cashew trees can grow up to 15 meters tall with a crown diameter of 12 to 14 meters, while the dwarf cashews reach an average height of 4 meters with a crown diameter of 6 to 8 meters. The common cashews start flowering between 24 and 36 months after planting, while the dwarf cashews flower between 6 and 18 months. The common cashews are popular worldwide, while the dwarf cashews are mainly grown in Brazil. The ideal cashew cultivars have high yields, desirable nut and apple qualities, tolerance to diseases and pests, and adaptability to different conditions. Other cultivar variations might exist to reflect the local preferences, agro-climatic conditions differences and efforts made by agricultural research institutes to develop improved cultivars.
 (Bezerra, et al., 2007, Kapinga, F. A., Kasuga et al., 2010). 
Examples of cultivars 
Tanzania: AC4, AZA2, 
Kenya- Improved varieties available at KALRO - Mtwapa Research Centre Kenya include A41, A47A, A75-83, A81 and A100. 

Ecological information

Cashew trees are usually grown at altitudes of between 0-500 m above sea level (asl), but can grow up to 1000 m asl. They can be very drought resistant provided their roots can penetrate deeply into the soil and draw water from the subsoil. For mature trees 500 mm of rainfall per year is adequate, but seedlings should be watered until properly established. If rainfall is below 900 mm per year plant at the widest spacing indicated. Cashew nut trees tolerate a wide range of soils provided they are deep and well drained. They can grow quite well on infertile soils but do not do well on coral outcrops at the coast.

Agronomic aspects

Planting material
Select seeds from healthy, high yielding trees. Before planting, sort out seeds by the water density method as follows: 
•    Place the seeds in a bucket of sea water (100 g salt per 5 litres of water) and select the seeds that sink for planting. Those that float have poor germination and growth potential.
•    Sun dry seeds for planting for several weeks to prevent mould and rotting.
•    Do not plant seeds that are more than one-year-old
Farmers are advised to seek guidance from local extension officers to identify the most suitable cashew nut seeds for their region. In Kenya, good, selected seed may be purchased from the KARI - Mtwapa Research Centre.

Land preparation and planting
Clean the field and dig holes 30 cm x30 cm x 40 cm deep and refill with topsoil mixed with 1 bucket of well-rotted manure or compost. Due to their extensive root system cashew nut trees compete for water and nutrients and therefore should be well spaced. Their canopies should not touch one another since this interferes with production of flowers and hence fruit setting. Recommended spacing in good rainfall areas is 12 m x 6 m, giving 139 trees per ha. In low rainfall areas spacing of 12 m x12 m (69 trees/ha) is recommended to give the trees a better chance for survival. Only the healthiest trees are worthwhile keeping for long growing periods.

Planting methods include:
•    Direct planting of seeds: This method has the advantage that less labour is needed but there is higher risk of death during dry season and also a higher risk of early diseases. Plant 3 seeds per hole covered by 6-8 cm of soil
•    Raising seedlings in polybags in the nursery: This method has the advantages that it is easier to water the seedlings properly, which is particularly important in the dry season, and that is possible to select the strongest and healthiest plants for transplanting. Disadvantages are that more labour is required and it is a bit more expensive. Seedlings in polybags should be transplanted 6 weeks after sowing in order to avoid damage to the taproot

Intercropping 
This can be done before the canopies close. Most annual crops can be used apart from cotton and sweet potatoes, which are host plants for Helopeltis bugs, major pests of cashew. Do not interplant young trees with pasture because of the high competition for water during the dry season.

Husbandry
No fertiliser is required, but well-rotted manure at planting is beneficial. Keep the area around the tree (1 1/2 times the size of the canopy) should be kept clean of weeds for the first 2 years to avoid competition. If planted on a slope the tree should have a U-shaped mound of soil below it to collect rainwater for improved growth. Seeds germinate within 2-4 weeks. Thin after 3-4 months leaving only the strongest plant at each site. Protect seedlings from monkeys, rodents and bucks by placing wire cages or thorns around the seedlings. Support plants with a stick and trim off side shoots up to 60-90 cm from ground level. When trees are mature, prune dead wood or any borer damaged or intergrowing branches to give the canopy air and light. 

Harvest, post-harvest practices and markets

Harvesting
Trees normally bear fruit when they are 2 1/2 - 3 years old. They reach maturity after 9-10 years and may have an economic life span of 30-40 years if well cared for. Harvesting starts at the beginning of October and continues till the end of December. Pick only the nuts that have dropped down and remove the attached apple by a twisting action. Pick on a weekly basis in the dry season and daily in wet weather to avoid fruit rotting or insect damage. Store only dry nuts. Average yield is about 6 kg/tree but with good husbandry 12 kg/tree can be obtained. 

Post-harvest practices.
Grading
Cashew nuts are graded into 2 categories: 
•    FAQ (Fair Average Quality) - normally about 75%. These are healthy nuts with pinkish to greyish colour with no shrinkage or distortion.
•    UG (Under Grade) - normally about 25%. Nuts which may have some blackish colour, distortion or shrinkage but not rotten.
Sun dried raw nuts for one to six days to reduce moisture content to 9% or less for safe storage and to mature the seed through the infra-red and violet rays of the sun. Correctly dried nuts are pinkish in colour and produce a rattling sound when shaken. No mark can be made on a dry nut with a thumbnail. Dry raw nuts can be stored under dry conditions for at least two years without losing their flavor, but they are generally processed within one year of harvesting.
The decortication of cashew nuts is hampered by the liquid contained in the cashew nut shell. This liquid is a viscous, oily liquid, pale yellow to dark brown in colour with a bitter taste and caustic properties; it causes blisters on human skin unless precautions are taken, and it will spoil kernels on contact. In traditional artisanal cashew processing the nuts are put in an open pan over an open fire and stirred continuously to avoid scorching until they start burning, then they are thrown on sand to extinguish the fire and to remove the remaining humidity on the outer skin.
In industrial processing the nuts are graded in different size classes and rehumidified at about 16% moisture by spreading water over them for about two days to make the kernel elastic and to fill the cells of the shell with water. Then, they are roasted in a hot oil bath heated to 192degC for about 90 seconds depending on the size of the nuts. Through the roasting process, the cells of the shell break and about 25 % of the shell liquid flows into the bath. The remaining liquid on the outer shell is removed with sawdust. Both the artisanal and the industrial methods make the shell brittle so that they can be broken easily.
Another method to avoid contamination of the kernel with the shell liquid is to deep-freeze the nuts and split the shells while frozen.
There are different methods for manual cashew shelling. The simplest consist of placing the prepared nuts on a stone using a hardwood stick to crack the shell. A semi-mechanized process uses a pair of knives shaped in the contour of half a nut. The knife system is also used in industrial plants. In another industrial processing method centrifuges are used to crack the shells; shells and kernels are then separated in an air stream, heated shells are lighter and blow away.
After shelling the kernels have to be dried to about 6% moisture content, thereafter the testa can be peeled off easily. Kernels are then graded, rehumidified to 8% and packed in airtight containers filled with carbon dioxide (CO2) and sealed. The CO2 inhibits infestation by insects and is slowly absorbed by the nuts thus producing a vacuum that prevents shaking and breaking of the nuts during transportation.

Cashew apple processing:
Apples are steamed under pressure or cooked in a 2% salt solution to remove the astringency. Addition of gelatin, pectin or lime juice clears the cashew juice from remaining undesirable contents.

Value addition and markets 

Cashew nuts delicious taste and nutritional benefits, making them a highly sought-after commodity in the global market. Cashew nuts are often roasted, salted, or flavored to cater to different consumer preferences. Additionally, cashew kernels are used in the production of confectionery, baked goods, and savory snacks. The versatility of cashew nuts contributes to their high market value and widespread popularity.
Vietnam holds the position of the largest cashew nut exporter worldwide, accounting for a significant share of the global market. Other major producers and exporters include India, Brazil, and Ivory Coast. In Africa, cashew nut cultivation and export play a vital role in the economies of several countries. The leading cashew nut producer in Africa is Ivory Coast, followed by Nigeria, Guinea-Bissau, and Tanzania. 
The United States, European Union, and China are among the key consumers of cashew nuts. These regions have a large consumer base and a growing demand for healthy and convenient snacks, leading to increased imports of cashew nuts (expertmarketresearch.com, einnews.com, UNCTAD, n.d).

Nutritional value and recipes

Cashew provides a wide range of essential nutrients that can greatly benefit the body. Raw cashews contain urushiol, a toxic substance also found in poison ivy, which can cause skin reactions in some individuals. However, roasted cashews are safe to eat and are also commonly used in pastries like biscuits, cakes, and bar chocolates.1,2
The nuts contain a wealth of minerals, vitamins, and valuable compounds, making them a popular choice for individuals seeking a nutritious and wholesome treat. Cashew nuts are rich in beneficial fats, such as monounsaturated fats and omega-3 fatty acids. These fats are known to promote heart health by reducing levels of LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, thus lowering the risk of cardiovascular diseases including stroke and heart attacks3. Additionally, cashews offer dietary fiber, which aids digestion, helps maintain stable blood sugar levels, and contributes to a feeling of fullness, supporting weight management.
Furthermore, cashews are abundant in copper, magnesium, phosphorus, and zinc. Copper plays a vital role in the production of red blood cells and supports a healthy immune system. It also contributes to the maintenance of collagen and elastin, essential structural components in the body. Insufficient copper levels can result in the inability to repair damaged connective tissue and collagen, leading to issues such as joint dysfunction. Magnesium, found in cashews, is involved in more than 300 enzymatic reactions within the body. It plays a crucial role in processes such as food metabolism, synthesis of fatty acids and proteins, muscle relaxation, neuromuscular transmission, and activity. In older individuals, magnesium deficiency is associated with conditions like insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, coronary heart disease, and osteoporosis.
Phosphorus is essential for energy production and cellular maintenance, while zinc contributes to immune function, wound healing, and DNA synthesis.
In addition to minerals, cashews provide various essential vitamins, including B6, E, and K. Vitamin B6 supports brain development and function, as well as the production of neurotransmitters like serotonin and norepinephrine. Vitamin E acts as an antioxidant, safeguarding cells against damage caused by free radicals and supporting immune function. Vitamin K is crucial for blood clotting and plays a role in maintaining healthy bones.
Beyond their nutrient content, cashews offer a multitude of health benefits. Their high antioxidant levels help combat oxidative stress, reducing the risk of chronic diseases and promoting cellular health. The presence of magnesium can contribute to improved sleep quality and relaxation. Moreover, the copper content supports collagen production, a protein vital for maintaining healthy skin and joints. It is worth noting that while cashews provide numerous benefits, moderation is key due to their calorie density. Consuming a handful of cashews can serve as a satisfying snack, but excessive intake may lead to weight gain. If you have specific dietary requirements or allergies, it is advisable to consult a healthcare professional before incorporating cashews into your diet (healthline.com 1, scientificamerican.com 2, medicalnewstoday3, Rico et al., 2015).

Table 1: Proximate nutritional value of 100g of cashew nut, dry, raw unsalted

 

Nut, cashew, dry, raw, unsalted

Recommended daily allowance (approx.) for adults a

     

Edible portion

1

 

Energy (kj)

2470

9623

Energy(kcal))

595

2300

Water (g)

5.9

2000-3000c

Protein (g)

16.5

50

Fat (g)

48

<30 (male), <20 (female)b

Carbohydrates

21.5

225 -325g

Total dietary Fibre (g)

5.8

30d

Ash (g)

2.3

 

Mineral composition

   

Calcium (mg)

33

800

Iron (mg)

4.9

14

Magnesium (mg)

244

300

Phosphorus (mg)

578

800

Potassium (mg)

536

4,700f

Sodium (mg)

11

<2300e

Zinc (mg)

5.36

15

Se (mg)

32

 

Bioactive compound composition

   

Vit A RE (mcg)

1

800

Vit A RAE (mcg)

1

800

Retinol (mcg)

0

1000

Beta-carotene equiv (mcg)

6

600 – 1500g

Vit D (mcg)

 

5 – 15*

Vit E (mg)

 

9

Thiamine (mg)

0.65

1.4

Riboflavin (mg)

0.25

1.6

Niacin (mg)

1.8

18

Vit B6 (mg)

 

1.3

Folate (mcg)

24

400f

Vit B12 (mcg)

0

3

Vit C (mg)

0

60

Source (Nutrient data): FAO/Government of Kenya. 2018. Kenya Food Composition Tables. Nairobi, 254 pp. http://www.fao.org/3/I9120EN/i9120en.pdf

a Lewis, J. 2019. Codex nutrient reference values. Rome. FAO and WHO

b NHS (refers to saturated fat)

c https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/water/

d British Heart Foundation

e FDA

f NIH

g Mayo Clinic

Contact Information

Cashew suppliers 

Cashew buyers

Research organisation

Industrial Crops Research Institute: icri@kalro.org,(020) 2024751

References and information links 

References 
1.    Acland, J. D. (1980). East African Crops: An Introduction to the Production of Field and Plantation Crops in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. FAO. Longman Group Limited London. ISBN: 0 582 60301 3
2.    Anacardium occidentale L. in GBIF Secretariat (2021). GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Checklist dataset https://doi.org/10.15468/39omei accessed via GBIF.org on 2021-12-27.
3.    African Museums. https://www.africamuseum.be/en/research/collections_libraries/biology/prelude/view_plant?pi=01160&cat=&cur_page=5
4.    Agricultural Information Center (AIC) (2002). Field Crops Technical Handbook.Min of Agriculture, Nairobi, Kenya.
5.    Behrens, R. (1996). Cashew as an Agroforestry Crop- Prospects and Potentials. Tropical Agriculture. GTZ. Margraf Verlag. ISBN; 3-8236-1257-3.
6.    Bohlen, E. (1973). Crop Pests in Tanzania and their Control. Federal Agency for Economic Cooperation (bfe). Verlag Paul Parey. ISBN: 3-489-64826-9.
7.    Cashew organic cultivation guide, 2001, Naturland. Available online www.naturland.de
8.    Chabi Sika, Kamirou & Adoukonou-Sagbadja, Hubert & L, Ahoton & Aliou, Saidou & Ahanchede, Adam & T, Kefela & Gachomo, Emma & Baba-Moussa, Lamine & Kotchoni, Simeon. (2015). Genetic Characterization of Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L) Cultivars from Benin. journal of horticulture. 2. 7. 10.4172/2376-0354.1000153.
9.    Griesbach, J (1992). A Guide to Propagation and Cultivation of Fruit Trees in Kenya. Schriftenreihe No. 230, Eschborn, Germany: GTZ. ISBN 3-88085-482-3
10.    Hill, D. (1983). Agricultural insect pests of the tropics and their control. 2nd edition. Cambridge University Press. ISBN: 0-521-24638-5.
11.    Integration of Tree Crops into Farming Systems Project (GTZ) and Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Nairobi, Kenya (2000). Tree Crop Propagation and Management - A Farmer Trainer Training Manual.
12.    Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock Development and Cooperatives. Tanzania. Annual reports. Plant Protection Division.
13.    Nutrition Data. nutritiondata.com.
14.    Orwa C, A Mutua, Kindt R , Jamnadass R, S Anthony. 2009 Agroforestree Database:a tree reference and selection guide version 4.0 (http://www.worldagroforestry.org/sites/treedbs/treedatabases.asp)
15.    Plantation crops 2012. Origin and Distribution of cashew http://ecoursesonline.iasri.res.in/mod/page/view.php?id=103695
16.    Red river foods 2011.  CASHEWS highlights of the cashew industry. https://www.africancashewalliance.com/sites/default/files/documents/2011CashewBroch.pdf
17.    Salehi, B., Gültekin-Özgüven, M., Kırkın, C., Özçelik, B., Flaviana Bezerra Morais-Braga, M., Nalyda Pereira Carneiro, J., ... & C. Cho, W. (2019). Anacardium plants: chemical, nutritional composition and biotechnological applications. Biomolecules, 9(9), 465.
18.    Bezerra, M. A., Lacerda, C. F., Filho, E. G., Abreu, C. E. B. and Prisco, J. T. (2007). Physiology of Cashew Plants grown under Adverse Conditions. Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology, 19(4), and http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php? script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677 04202007000400012&lng= en.&nrm=iso [Gives a detailed botanical description of cashew nut, and documents the characteristics of dwarf cashew].
19.    Kapinga, F. A., Kasuga, L. J. F., & Kafiriti, E. M. (2010). Growth and production of cashew nut. Soils, Plant Growth And Crop Production–Growth and Production of Cashew Nut, 1-10.
20.    Rico, Ricard & Bulló, Mónica & Salas-Salvadó, Jordi. (2015). Nutritional composition of raw fresh cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) kernels from different origin. Food Science & Nutrition. 4. 10.1002/fsn3.294. available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/282907291_Nutritional_composition_of_raw_fresh_cashew_Anacardium_occidentale_L_kernels_from_different_origin

Information links 
•    https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/309369#risks
•    https://pharmeasy.in/blog/ayurveda-uses-benefits-side-effects-of-cashew-nuts/
•    https://www.expertmarketresearch.com/reports/cashew-kernel-market
•    https://www.einnews.com/pr_news/586693524/global-raw-cashew-nuts-market-size-factors-of-revenue-industry-statistics-growing-ca
•    https://unctad.org/publication/commodities-glance-special-issue-cashew-nuts
•    https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/what-do-cashews-mangoes-and-poison-ivy-have-in-common/

Review Process

Dr. Patrick Maundu, James Kioko, Charei Munene and Monique Hunziker, May 2024

Table of content

loading....