17.08.08 pls include below a reference adresse of desmodium. no link to external website inside the text (link to push-pull net can be under reference adresse), also include link to icipe under reference adresse (not under info source)
Several species of stemborers attack rice. The more important are the striped borer (Chilo partellus), Chilo zacconius, Chilo orichalcocilielus, the white rice borer (Maliarpha separatella), the yellow borer (Scirpophaga sp.) and the pink stemborer (Sesamia calamistis).
The caterpillars bore into the stem of rice plants. Caterpillars of the yellow borer bore into the stem below the growing point, destroying tillers. The white borer and the pink stemborer attack rice at full tillering stage preventing grains from filling up and ripening. This damage results in empty panicles known as "whiteheads". The striped borer feed on rice plants at all stages. Young caterpillars cause "dead hearts".
- Practise field sanitation. Burn or feed debris to livestock after harvest.
- Plough and flood after harvest. These practices destroy diapausing stemborer caterpillars.
- Practise early and synchronised planting. Synchronised planting over a large area allows the most susceptible stage of rice to escape from stemborer damage.
- Practise proper water management.
- Conserve natural enemies. Wasps that parasitise eggs and caterpillars, and predators such as ants, dragonflies, assassin bugs, carabid beetles and spiders are important natural enemies of stemborers.
- The following cultivars are reported to be resistant to stemborers: Oryza sativa japonica sub-species: "LAC 23", "ITA 121", "TOS 4153", and upland "NERICA"s ("NERICA 1", "NERICA 2", "NERICA 4", "NERICA 5", and "NERICA 7") (WARDA).