17.08.08 pls include below a reference adresse of desmodium. no link to external website inside the text (link to push-pull net can be under reference adresse), also include link to icipe under reference adresse (not under info source)
Stemborers: Spotted stemborer (Chilo partellus)
Sorghum is attacked by several species of stemborers. The most important species include the spotted stalkborer (Chilo partellus), the pink stalkborer (Sesamia calamitis) and the maize stalkborer (Buseola fusca).
The feeding activity of the caterpillars inside the stems causes stunted plant growth, sterile or poorly developed ear heads. Plants may dry and die if the infestation is severe.
- Early planting to ensure maximum pest escape.
- Use resistant varieties.
- Habitat management. Intercropping sorghum with pulses (cowpeas, groundnuts) in alternate rows, may reduce stemborer incidence by 20-30%.
- Sanitation (destruction of crop residues, volunteer plants and alternative hosts). Crop residues (stalks and other residues) should be destroyed after harvest through burning the stalks, or fed to livestock. However, burning of crop residues may not be practical in communities where soil fertility is low and no fertilisers are used since crop residue is the only source of organic matter.
- Biological control. Recent research work on stemborers has been focussing on the introduction exotic parasitoids in countries where Chilo partellus is wide spread.