White tip nematode (Aphelenchoides besseyi)
Rice is the most important host worldwide. Other host plants include; strawberry, onion, garlic, sweet corn, sweet potato, soybean, sugar cane, horseradish, lettuce, millet, many grasses, orchids, chrysanthemum, marigold, Mexican sunflower, African violets, and rubber plant (Hibiscus brachenridgii). Feeding of the nematodes at leaf tips in rice results in whitening of the top 3 to 5 cm of the leaf leading to necrosis (described as "White Tip" of rice). There is also distortion of the flag leaf that encloses the panicle. Diseased plants are stunted, lack vigour and produce small panicles. Affected panicles show high sterility, distorted glumes and small and distorted kernels.
- Plant nematode-free seeds.
- Plant in nematode-free areas.
- Plant resistant rice varieties if available.
- Treat seed with hot water. Hot water treatment of seed can be used to destroy this nematode infecting the seeds. Thermal wet treatment was the most effective at 55-60degC for 15 minutes. For more information on Hot-water treatment click here.