Whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci, Trialeurodes vaporariorum and Aleyrodes proletella)
Several species of whiteflies are found on cassava in Africa. Feeding causes direct damage, which may cause considerable reduction in root yield if prolonged feeding occurs. Some whiteflies cause major damage to cassava as vectors of cassava viruses. The spiralling whitefly (Aleurodicus dispersus) was reported as a new pest of cassava in West Africa in the early 90s.
The adults and nymphs of this whitefly occur in large numbers on the lower surfaces of leaves covered with large amount of white waxy material. Females lay eggs on the lower leaf surface in spiral patterns (like fingerprints) of white material secreted by the female. This whitefly sucks sap from cassava leaves. It excretes large amounts of honeydew, which supports the growth of black sooty mould on the plant, causing premature fall of older leaves.
The tobacco whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) transmits the African cassava mosaic virus one of the most important factors limiting production in Africa. The adults and nymphs of the tobacco whitefly occur on the lower surface of young leaves. They are not covered with white material. The nymphs appear as pale yellow oval specks to the naked eye.
- Conserve natural enemies. Parasitic wasps in particular are very important for natural control of whiteflies. For instance Encarsia formosa, natural enemy of the tobacco whitefly, and Encarsia haitiensis a natural enemy of the spiralling whitefly (Neuenschwander, 1998; James, et al, 2000).