Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. capsici)
Disease symptoms include drooping and yellowing of lower leaves followed by wilting of the entire plant. Leaves on infected plants remain attached and the vascular system of the plant is discoloured, particularly in the lower stem and roots. The fungus lives indefinitely in the soil and is spread in irrigation water. It is very susceptible to changes in temperature and soil moisture. The optimum temperature for disease development is 24 to 27°C .
Soil moisture has the greatest influence. The wilt does not occur in dry soil, but it is serious in poorly drained fields.
- Plant resistant cultivars, if available.
- Lime the soil.
- Ensure the soil has a good drainage.
- Apply soil antagonist Trichoderma spp., which is commercially available in Kenya.